Pig breeding belongs to high-cost branches of agriculture - electricity, heating, construction of capital pig farms, service personnel, feed preparation, all this requires significant financial investments, which discourages small farmers from breeding pigs.
deep litter pigs - relatively new method
pigs on deep bedding in the pig breeding of our country is a relatively new method that has not yet received proper distribution. Growing pigs on a litter of this type allows keeping the animals warm, clean without large material and physical costs.
Method of non-replaceable bedding in pig breeding
The essence of the method is to mix litter consisting of straw of various types of cereal with the possible addition of wood chips, sawdust and other organic materials with special biological products containing coprophagic bacteria.
The coprophagus bacteria dispose of feces, urine, due to which the pigsty does not have a very unpleasant odor of excretions, and due to the formation of the microbiological environment during the fermentation process, heat is generated, about 40 ° С, which allows keeping animals in rooms without heating, even in winter. Growing pigs with this method more favorably with the usual, well-known methods.
Description and essence of deep bedding technology: features and benefits
In the room for breeding pigs recommended concrete cover, set under a slight slope. Concrete is very cold material, for this reason, it is necessary to lay a litter material on it to preserve heat in the pigsty, thereby preventing animal diseases.
The traditional method involves the laying of natural materials such as sawdust, straw or wood chips. Such flooring requires constant replacement. However, the use of deep non-removable bedding allows you to facilitate farm work and save money on manure removal.
The essence of this method is to mix traditional bedding with a special biological product. It is based on a complex of enzymes, bacteria and other organic compounds that work on the principle of an organic reaction, absorbing nitrogen, ammonia and splitting animal excreta. As a result of these processes, heat is released.
The litter is a loose material resembling fine chips. It is applied in a dry form, does not require dilution with water. Manure splitting occurs in the lower layers of the litter, which keeps the top layer dry and clean, and the deep layer is heated to high temperatures. Due to the constant fermentation process, heat is released, providing a comfortable temperature in the range of 20-30 ° C heat, in winter up to 15 ° C.
Does not require special care, if necessary, just pour a small amount of sawdust over the existing flooring.
For the most efficient use of deep bedding, as well as ensuring heat and dryness in the pigsty, it is necessary to take into account some peculiarities of its use and to observe a number of requirements.
First of all it is necessary to ensure the integrity of the room. It should not be visible cracks and drafts. At the same time good ventilation is obligatory to prevent the formation of excessive humidity.
Preference should be given to dry high-fiber pig food. This allows you to speed up the processes of fermentation and increase the heat in the intestines of animals.
According to this technology, the pig has free access to food and water, and therefore it is recommended to install a car to heat up the drinker during the winter period to prevent freezing of water.
It is also necessary to take into account the size of the pigsty to ensure the free movement of animals and to avoid overloading the litter with waste from life.
Advantages of using deep bedding:
- Efficiency. In connection with the generation of heat as a result of fermentation processes, the cost of electricity associated with heating the room is excluded. Also provides significant savings due to the lack of the need to export and disposal of waste products of animals.
- Versatility. The litter is suitable for breeding all types of animals and birds. When breeding animals, the recommended thickness of the flooring is about 40 cm, for birds it is 20 cm.
- Hygiene. Recycling occurs in the inner layers of the litter, keeping the top layer dry and clean. Animals are kept warm and without a characteristic odor.
- Ease of use. The pig litter does not require replacement for up to five years. To start using, it is enough to cover the floors with a deck of the required thickness and fill the required amount of enzyme litter in accordance with the instructions for use. After replacement, the result of processing can be used as an organic fertilizer that perfectly saturates the earth, unlike conventional manure.
- The absence of rodents and insects. In the lower layers of the litter, the temperature reaches 40 ° C heat, which eliminates the likelihood of rodents, and the constant maintenance of cleanliness prevents the appearance of flies and other insects.
Ways to keep pigs in deep litter
Two methods are most common: keeping pigs on non-replaceable litter; the choice of method depends on the season.
Methods of keeping pigs:
Pasture method. To implement this method, it is necessary to form homogeneous herds. Pigs must be the same age and sex. You can not keep together young animals with adults. With free grazing on deep litter, the pig feeding process is carried out automatically. It is imperative to monitor the free access of animals to water and its sufficient amount.
This method is most often used and is typical for the summer season. Walking is carried out in a specially fenced area, providing animals with sufficient sunlight and fresh air.
However, one should take into account that the light skin of pigs is not adapted to direct sunlight, for this reason it is necessary to install a canopy over the pasture.
Animals can be free-range, having the opportunity to go out into the open area at any time, or be there in accordance with the established mode of the day in strictly allotted hours. In order to further facilitate the process of keeping pigs in the pasture method, electronic shepherds are often used.
A loose way. In this case, the hangar is assembled, most often for these purposes a light arched frame covered with an awning of tarpaulin is used. Easy to use, if necessary, it is easy to disassemble and move to a more suitable place. The design is easily upgraded, it can be added with new sections, the size is adjustable, it can be either increased or decreased.
Care should be taken to ventilate the air and maintain dryness in the hangar. This helps prevent the incidence of pigs.
For bedding most often used cereal straw. This method is preferred for the winter period.
A loose way is most beneficial from an economic point of view, since it eliminates the need to build pastures and maintain the required conditions in them. However, in this case, animals are most susceptible to various diseases and require more careful and attentive care.
The use of deep litter in the content of pigs greatly facilitates physical labor, allowing alone to cope with a large number of livestock. That is undoubtedly a step forward in the field of animal husbandry and the development of farming.
Features of the technology of cold keeping on a deep non-replaceable bedding in pig breeding
The essence of the method in mixing organic materials with special biopreparations
The main features include.
- For the cultivation of pigs are not required solid buildings. An easy-to-build, low-cost room made of a metal frame and an awning cover is sufficient, with mandatory ventilation, but without drafts.
- The soil at the site of the pigsty should be well drained, otherwise, the thickness of the litter should be increased. Concrete floors are excluded.
- The formation of the litter begins with the laying of straw, sawdust on the floor about 20 cm thick, the biological preparation with bacteria is scattered on top. It is impossible to begin the calculation in the cold, because to start the process of fermentation, you need heat, at least from 5-10 degrees. As they are moistened and trampled down, the bedding is tedied, a fresh layer is reported, and the biopharmaceutical is again sprinkled with bacteria. Fermentation old litter is agitated deeply, completely, for drying and ventilation. It is optimal to bring the litter thickness from 50 centimeters to one meter.
- Fermentation non-replaceable bedding, even when frost under minus 30 0 C, is capable of releasing heat to the surface from plus 5 degrees, because the fermentation process is accompanied by an active release of heat to the environment. The temperature in the deep layers can reach plus 40 degrees. Complete change of bedding before the settlement in the barn of a new batch of animals. With a small livestock, you can not change the litter to a maximum of five years, refreshing and agitating it, but not desirable for veterinary reasons. In the litter, with excessively long use, shallow tedding, pathogenic bacteria can settle.
- Rodents do not live in the non-replaceable litter, which is important, because the list of diseases tolerated by these animals is long.
- Animals in such sods are kept free-walking way. This method allows animals to move more, especially this is important on frosty days. For small farms, where it is difficult to form a homogeneous group for fattening, you can use the stall content or the combined one.
- Groups are formed by gender and age selection principle. You can grow on irremovable litter pregnant sows, boars, single individuals. This technology is not suitable for raising newborns and pigs as well as farrow sows.
Rodents do not live in the non-replaceable litter, which is important
- Feeding animals using only dry crumbly, granular feed. Feed mixtures with a high content of fiber, preferably given to animals on frosty days, due to fermentation, which occurs in the large intestine, increase heat transfer. Bunker-type feeders for auto-drinkers with heating for the cold period of the year are located on one of the end sides. Such an arrangement teaches animals to subdivide the feeding, resting, and stool areas.
- At the end of the fattening, the whole group of pigs is sent to the meat factory.
Advantages of technology
The biggest advantages should be attributed to the low cost of construction, the lack of costs for heating and reduction of energy costs. Awning arched structure plan installed and disassembled quickly, small forces. With the maintenance of livestock in the amount of 300 to 1.5 thousand animals, one employee calmly copes. Lack of smell, cleanliness of the premises positively affect the quality of meat, taste, smell of meat.
Straw, sawdust, shavings and other organic matter for bedding are inexpensive. Bale of straw from 100 rubles, sawdust and shavings by agreement with the timber industry, in practice - are given free of charge with the condition of collection and pickup. Biological product with bacteria - the cost varies, depending on the plant and the country of origin, from about 150 rubles per 0.5 liter. This volume of the drug is enough for 3-4 cube of sawdust of primary processing. For subsequent processing of bacteria litter takes a much smaller amount.
One pig per day will take about a kilogram of litter. The old bedding is an excellent fertilizer. Feeding with dry feeds and free access to water also have a number of advantages, no need to waste time on preparing feed. According to the observations of farmers using this technology in their farms, dry food with this content is spent more economically, and the weight gain is from 100 to 500 grams per individual per day.
Free-walking content allows animals to move freely, thereby contributing to the development of the skeleton, the muscular system, increases fertility and immunity of animals.
The biggest advantages include reduced heating costs.
The technology is fully applicable in the southern and central regions of Russia, in the northern areas, it will require additional heating of the pigsty using heating, optimally - infrared heating systems, they warm up the air near the floor. The absence of the need to export and utilize manure, which in its pure form, when applied to the soil, depletes its upper layer, and manure processed by bacteria with other organic matter enriches the soil and will serve as an excellent fertilizer.
This technology is perfect for owners of farms, farmers who are taking the first steps in the development of pig breeding, small and medium-sized pig farms, and for large agricultural complexes. The technology is applicable to the breeding of cattle and small cattle, in rabbit breeding, sheep breeding and poultry farming.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of the content on the deep litter
In addition to the mentioned economy, The technology of growing pigs using deep bedding has other advantages, which include:
- simplicity of design (in particular, does not require a complex ventilation system),
- availability of application both in conditions of keeping a large number of pigs on farms, and during their breeding in private households,
- ease of installation: a pigsty is assembled from a light material at hand, giving it an arched shape and covering it with an awning,
- the weight gain of pigs that are contained by this technology is 70-85 g / day, with the meat fraction increasing by 3%,
- the possibility of easy installation of the automatic feed feed bin (for example, you can set up the device to feed once a week, as a result of which the feed savings in the process of growing often reach 300 g / 1 kg gain),
- no need for air purification from ammonia vapors appearing with manure and urine (the bacteria present in the litter themselves do an excellent job of this task),
- universality and durability of the litter: it is changed every five years, using the old flooring as a fully prepared organic fertilizer (recall that simple dung too much depletes the earth, while its humus, on the contrary, saturates),
- high level of cleanliness in the pigsty: the air is always fresh, and the pigs do not get dirty with manure.
How to equip a room for pigs
No matter how ideal the new technologies in pig production are, it all starts with the arrangement of housing for pigs - the pigsty.It is in this room that the main physiological and production processes in animals take place: preparation for mating and the very mating of sows and boars, preparation and birth of piglets, feeding of the whole livestock, fattening of young animals, etc. Therefore, Before you start building a pigsty on your site, you should:
- study in detail the possible types of projects pigs, depending on the intended livestock,
- choose a suitable place for construction,
- develop a construction plan
- provide for the rationality of the device of such a room at home.
Wood is considered to be the best material for the construction of the pigsty, because it is a wooden structure that is able to provide sufficient heat, dryness and the required air environment. However, if you are going to use modern technology of keeping pigs on deep bedding, you do not need to build any monumental structures. It will be enough to have a room made of a metal frame and covered with an awning covering (tarpaulin).
Such lightweight constructions are very convenient to use, since they can be installed on any soils and are easily disassembled without the involvement of specialists. In addition, the building can be easily supplemented with the required number of sections, which allows you to expand the territory depending on the number of heads. However, in this case, a significant role is played by the ventilation system of the pigsty and soil drainage (concrete floors are completely contraindicated).
Also Do not forget about the possibility of freezing of water in drinking bowls, which must be controlled. It is good if the installed drinkers will have a heating system, and the feeders will be made in the form of automatically filled bunkers, to which pigs can have constant access. For the role of litter material, cereal straw, sawdust, wood chips and other organic materials are perfect. Initially, the litter is laid out in a layer of 0.2 m, and as it is moistened, a new material is gradually added.
It should be noted that the meat of pigs grown in such conditions, has a high taste, which is very useful for successful business.
The free-walking method of keeping pigs is used much more often than the non-breeder variant of raising animals, including on deep bedding. It is used at any stage of livestock development, but in this case it is necessary to form same-sex herds of approximately the same age from pigs. Otherwise, there is a rather high probability of damage to the young stock by more adult individuals.
For the purpose of walking animals to the room where they are kept most of the time, they attach open pens or special areas. Walking is carried out either strictly according to the regime, or at any convenient time, without limiting this process. On large farms, where bacteria are used for litter pigs, and the animals themselves are grown in free-form, their feeding is fully automated and mechanized. This makes the process of keeping livestock very economical, especially when using dry combination mixes.
The breederless way of keeping pigs is not so attractive for them and is more suitable for the winter season. However, the majority of pig farms, designed for a large number of animals, use this variant of keeping. Pigs in warmed with straw or sawdust can be kept until the moment of putting up for meat, without having been in the open air. Therefore, to maintain good reproductive capacity and proper development of individuals in the room, it is necessary to ensure an appropriate microclimate: dry and well ventilated. Excessive accumulation of moisture in the air will provoke the appearance of various diseases in pigs, as well as increase the likelihood of colds in animals.
Do not forget about the camp-pasture system, because, despite the fact that this is the most costly option, in the summer it helps to get more meat without significant material investments. In this variant of growing pigs contain in three ways:
- stall-pasture (in winter, animals are in semi-open areas, and in summer - on pasture),
- camp-pasture proper (pigs are placed in mobile camps and as the grass is eaten in one place, the complex moves to another),
- camp bezvigulnym (animals live in summer camps, but they bring food from the fields).
Bacteria that turn manure into litter: the pros and cons
When using deep bedding for pigs, you will surely meet such a definition as “the bacterium net formation”. First of all, you need to understand that “Netto Plast” is the name of one of the companies that produce biologically active organisms that are capable of processing manure. However, it is necessary to recognize the fact that it currently occupies a leading position in this field, and you will be convinced of this when you buy such bacteria. Used flooring has the form of ordinary small chips or sand, and the fermentation process takes place deep in the layers of the litter. The basis of the fermentation flooring recommended for proper keeping of pigs consists of photosynthetic and lactic acid bacteria, which are absolutely safe for animals and people. It is they who quickly and efficiently digest the waste of pigs.
Globally, the action of bacteria for deep bedding, which is often used to create comfortable conditions for pigs and other domestic animals, can be compared to the work of dry closets. The farmer only needs to cover the required layer of coating, and he will always get a clean room.
Due to the constant passage of the corresponding reactions in the deep fermentation litter, heat is generated, which, as we have said, will help to avoid spending on heating the room. To date, there are a number of drugs that are added to the bedding for pigs (usually consist of a mixture of straw, sawdust). At the initial stage, when you just put the material on the floor, a large number of bacteria is added to it, and then a maintenance dose of biologically active organisms is added monthly.
- with proper use of one layer of material with a good thickness should be enough for 4-5 years,
- you save time and effort that could be spent on cleaning in the pigsty,
- complete splitting of waste products of pigs falling on the litter occurs in just one day,
- the cost of additional space heating is significantly reduced or completely absent,
- the use of bacteria will save you not only from unpleasant odors, but will significantly reduce the number of dirty areas,
- the incidence and mortality of the livestock are also reduced, which means it can be said with certainty that bedding with bacteria is an excellent preventive measure in terms of preventing the incidence of pigs, including viral diseases,
- used flooring is a completely natural material, absolutely safe for the health of animals,
- the level of emission of harmful ammonia into the environment is reduced, and the possibility of pollution of groundwater by manure is prevented,
- pigs will not loosen the flooring, as they usually do with traditional coating before the onset of winter cold,
- with such a content, the feed formulation will not differ from the traditional one, except that during the cold months the animals especially need a large amount of retina.
- Well, finally, the described technology is perfect for both large livestock farms and small pig farms.
Nuances of installation and arrangement of the hangar for the maintenance of pigs
Initially, a hangar is built on the territory of the complex, measuring about 10 m in length and 20–30 m wide, and more depending on the number of livestock. Usually pig breeders place in the same hangar about 250 heads of fattening livestock. In the walls make small openings for natural ventilation, which are covered with shields in the winter.
In the room are installed feeders and drinkers. Straw from cereals is lined to the bottom, sawdust, sunflower seed husks, wooden chips and other organic substrates that absorb moisture well can also be used.
Initially, the litter should be placed with a layer of 0.2 - 0.3 m, gradually add it as it becomes dirty and moisture accumulates.
It is desirable to use as a covering material as a material for covering the walls and roof of the hangar, which has several advantages:
- low cost
- good mobility
- energy efficiency.
Peculiarities of keeping pigs in hangars in winter
Heating of pigs in cold weather and in winter is carried out due to fermentation processes of manure in the compressed layer of straw.
The temperature inside the compost is kept up to +15 degrees, and in the deeper layer of the compost - about 40 degrees, even when it is winter outside.
When there is a sufficient amount of straw in the hangar, the heat emanating from the compost warms the animals, they can be buried in the thickness of the straw.
Straw is a kind of insulation from the cold, so it should be in unlimited quantities in the hangar for the period of winter.
Remember! An important zootechnical criterion for winter maintenance is to control the level of the litter and the movement of airflow in the room, to avoid drafts and high humidity.
With proper ventilation control (no drafts), pigs can feel great in the hangar room, even when outside the thermometer drops to 40 degrees.
It is necessary to control the humidity in the room of the hangar, it should be no higher than 70%.
If pigs are kept in a pigsty on an irremovable litter with high humidity, then intensive processes of growth and reproduction of microorganisms will begin in the thickness of the straw.
This can cause diseases in animals; young pigs are especially susceptible to them.
During the day in winter one animal consumes 1 kg of straw.
The farrowing procedure, the rearing and keeping of piglets should be planned for warm seasons.
After the end of the fattening period, the entire group from the hangar is transferred to slaughter, and the hangar is cleared of the entire layer of manure and bedding, thoroughly washed and disinfected with the preparations, and after a while it begins to fatten the next group of pigs.
Efficiency of keeping pigs in hangars
This system of keeping pigs is perfect for a small pig farm, which has a small financial turnover of funds and medium-sized livestock of pigs.
For large pig farms this content system is acceptable, but not always used.
It has been experimentally proven that this method of growing pigs pays for the cost of an investment in a year or a year and a half, and the production costs are minimal (savings on electricity, on construction).
Production performance in the hangar method of keeping pigs:
- Average daily weight gain - up to 850 grams.
- Feed costs - up to 3 feed units.
- Slaughter yield - up to 75%.
Remember! The method of growing pigs in hangars on a deep non-replaceable litter contributes to a significant reduction in costs and increase the profitability of pork production. The main advantages of keeping pigs in deep litter are the short construction times of the pigsty, the low cost of construction, minimization of labor costs and manual labor, reduction of costs, conditions for keeping animals in compliance with international standards.
More information on the topic: http://propigs.info
CONTENT OF PIGS ON DEEP BED
Alternative methods of growing pigs began to revive in the mid-1990s in the UK, Denmark, France and Spain. The driving force behind this distribution was economic reasons, as well as legislative acts regulating the use of various methods of keeping animals. Alternatives to traditional pig houses are popular in Europe, Canada, USA, Australia, and probably interest will grow in many countries. This is especially true for Switzerland and Sweden, where legislation imposes the most stringent requirements for animal welfare, windowless housing, fully slotted floors, and flat roofs are prohibited there, the use of farrowing machines is limited to one week, all pigs should have access to straw.
Among the variety of alternatives (grazing of pigs, the Cargill system, etc.) one of the most successful is the group housing of pigs in the hangars.
The technology came from Japan and today it is used in various countries and climatic zones for fattening pigs, keeping boars, idle and pregnant sows, and even suckling sows with offspring. The essence of the technology lies in keeping pigs in large homogeneous groups on a deep, non-replaceable bedding, feeding plenty of dry balanced feeds with free access to water and using natural ventilation to control the microclimate.
Typically, the size of the hangar is 9-11 m in width and 18-33 m in length, although recently there has been a tendency to increase in size. This hangar holds 250-270 heads of fattening pigs. The walls are provided with ventilation openings, which in the cold period are closed with wooden shields. At the ends of the hangar are awning gates, rising and falling with a system of blocks. One side of the hangar has a concrete platform with the bunker itself, feeding trough and drinkers.
The other part of the hangar is filled with litter.
Most manufacturers use litter on the dirt floor. The most commonly used litter material is cereal straw, but sawdust, wood shavings, sunflower seed husks and other organic materials with high moisture absorption capacity can also be used. The litter material is initially placed in layers up to 0.2m, as the litter is moistened, it is gradually added.
Efficiency of pig keeping technology
Numerous comparative studies of the hangar and traditional content systems did not reveal significant differences in the level of pig productivity and operating production costs. The average daily weight gain in fattening pigs on a deep non-replaceable bedding is 750-850 grams, feed conversion ratio - 2.70 - 3.20, mortality - at the level of 3.0 - 4.0%, and slaughter yield -74-75% . Many note some superiority of the level of productivity of pigs in the hangars in the summer and the inverse relationship in the winter time.
As for financial indicators, due to the low cost of the premises and, consequently, a smaller amount of necessary investments, the return on investment for agricultural facilities is 35-40%, and for the traditional system is 17-20%, the payback period is 2-2.5 years and 5, respectively. -5.2 years. These data are obtained in the market conditions of the USA and Canada.The experience of using alternative technology in Russia and Ukraine shows that it is realistic to recoup investments for 1-1.5 years due to higher prices for pork and relatively low costs.
More information on the topic: http://fermer.ru
Deep litter, Bacteria for animals. Tel .: 8 953 866 66 00 Price: up to 2 packs 3000t.r from 3 packs - 2500t.r. Still cleaning for animals? Now you can free up your time and energy, and keep animals in comfortable conditions for them! Warm deep irremovable LIFE for ALL animal species. Due to the special natural bacteria, there is a large heat release in the litter layer. - does not require removal of manure, processes waste, - generates heat, - on the surface, the temperature is equalized with the environment to about 25 degrees at any time of the year. - reduces humidity, - neutralizes odor, - increases productivity, - sharp decline of insects, because there is no excessive moisture and smell, the absence of rodents, - reduction of mortality in animals by 30%, - saving food, because there is no excessive consumption for self-heating of the animal, - saving electricity, additional heating of the room is not required even in severe frost, - saving labor, Guaranteed service life of the fermentation litter is 3 years, subject to operating conditions!
During the whole service life, it is necessary to loosen the upper layer of the litter for oxygen access to the lower layers. As the time expires, sawdust will be a very good fertilizer for your vegetable garden. The litter layer should consist of sawdust, sunflower husk, rice husk. For goats, poultry, rabbit 20 cm. For pigs, cows and horses 40 cm. I have been using litter for the second year already. I am very pleased with no smell of manure, pigs feel excellent. And how much time and effort was saved ... YOU can personally come and see this and touch and smell everything))) In general, as they say, “It’s better to see once than hear a hundred times.” For more for more information, please call. I will tell and show.
Groups of pigs that can be kept in winter on a deep bedding in an unheated room
- Fattening pigs
- Repair pigs
- Pregnant sows
Of course, you can also contain other groups of pigs, but there are many nuances. Here are some of them.
Suckling piglets need temperature conditions so that they do not freeze, for this they install an IR lamp, straw is spread fresh to avoid infections, so it does not generate heat. Sows in the machine can not particularly move, so they also need to be heated.
The cold can also affect the hunt of sows, making it less pronounced, thereby increasing the number of proholes.
Piglets-weaners should be kept in a heated room, with a temperature of 20 degrees and gradually decreasing to 16 degrees by 3 months of age. If the required temperature is reached in the lower air layer, then you can do without heating.
deep litter pigs - features and overview of Canadian technology
Technologies for keeping pigs are improving every year, new methods are emerging that can simplify and minimize costs and physical work. One of these is the content of pigs in deep bedding. What is this technology, how to apply it, what advantages and disadvantages it has can be found in this article.
Features of technology on deep bedding
Special bacteria for deep bedding
To keep pigs on a bed of straw, sawdust with the use of bacteria began in Canada, Europe, Asia and America. This technique came to us relatively recently. The use of deep bedding helps to improve profitability and reduce the material base.
For the formation of litter using special bacteria, such as "Vodogray". Bacteria are mixed with straw and sawdust. Dung, urine and this mixture are processed by bacteria, which in turn produce heat. So inside the litter, the temperature can reach +40 degrees.
In winter, in an unheated pigsty, the temperature of the lower layer of the litter reaches + 5 - +15 degrees. It turns out that not heated pigsty, but with a good ventilation system will be suitable for the comfortable keeping of pigs.
Ventilation is necessary to extract excess moisture from the room.
What you need to consider when using deep bedding
The room of the pigsty should not have gaps, so you can avoid drafts. Carefully follow the drinkers, the water in them can freeze.
The food supply consists of a dry mix, which is used for normal feeding, but the fiber should be 40-50% more.
Compound feed with high fiber content enhances the fermentation process in the large intestines, and is responsible for the heat exchange process.
Pros of the system
The main advantages of keeping pigs in deep litter include:
- Efficiency. The cost of heating will decrease, heat is obtained as a result of the vital activity of bacteria.
- Simplicity of design. Even ventilation can be made the most primitive design.
- Availability of use for maintenance, both larger livestock and several pigs in private households.
- Pigsty can be assembled from lightweight and improvised material or arch type, covered with an awning.
- It is not necessary to clean manure all the time, as bacteria completely process it.
- The weight gain of pigs contained in this technology is 70-85 g / day. The meat share at the same time increases by 3%.
- Because of the high temperature that forms inside the litter, mice and rats do not live in it.
- Easy to install automatic feed feed bunker. You can set the feed at 1 time in 7 days and the savings of feed at the cultivation stage reaches 300 g / 1 kg gain.
- No need to think through how to clean the air from ammonia vapors that naturally appear after feces. Bacteria still inside the litter will work manure and urine.
- You need to change the litter every 5 years and can be used as an organic fertilizer of the finished form. Since simple manure drains the earth, and vice versa it saturates the humus.
- The air in the pigsty is always fresh and pigs do not get dirty with manure.
Read more about the pros specialist in the video:
There are only two minuses of this content: the first one will sooner or later change the litter, and this will take a long time. The second is water in drinking bowls, which quickly freezes at minus temperatures in the pigsty.
Free-walking method of keeping pigs on deep litter is considered one of the main and frequently used. Free-walking method is used at any stage of cultivation. But for such walking you need to form a herd of the same sex and the same age from the pigs. Otherwise, adults can damage the young.
In large farms, feeding pigs in free-form on deep bedding is automated and mechanized. So the process will be economical if you use dry combination blends. Care must be taken that pigs have free access to water at any time. Pasture maintenance of pigs preferably in the summer.
stall or loafless
This method is preferred for use in winter. Straw for bedding stall way take from a variety of cereals. Sawdust, dried with the addition of bacteria - utilizers for poultry and animal droppings.
To maintain good reproductive capacity and the development of microclimate in the stalls must be appropriate. It means dry and ventilated. The accumulation of moisture in the air provokes disease in pigs, as well as increases the chance of their forgiveness.
The hangar for keeping pigs can be assembled from a light arched frame by covering it with a canvas tang. Such designs are also convenient because it is easy to disassemble and move the pigsty without the involvement of specialists.
Light pigsty well tolerate any low and high temperatures and are mounted on any type of soil. There is such a hangar, depending on the area, from 30,000 rubles.
The prefab design is easily complemented with sections and the pigsty can be expanded or reduced depending on the population.
Equipment in the pigsty should be optimally located for growing pigs of any productive cycle.
Canadian Winter Content
Arched hangar for pigs
Canadian content is also called cold. Whether it is suitable for the Russian winter, the disputes of agrarians still do not cease.
Features of Canadian technology:
- Use only tent hangars.
- The litter is made from sawdust straw and other organic compounds.
- Drinking bowls are installed with special heating, internal with free access to feed and water at any time.
- Pigs are divided into small groups by age and sex.
The litter is initially lined with a thickness of 20 cm, and a dry layer is added to it, depending on its wetting. The litter, at an outdoor temperature in winter of -25 degrees, warms up to +15 degrees on the surface. The main thing is to avoid drafts.
Canadian pig keeping allows growing more than 100 pcs in a small area. pigs. For example, in the hangar 10x33 m can be diluted from 150-250 heads. But the animals at the same time feel free, walk along the hangar. So the inert and muscular system develops without delay, increasing immunity and fertility. Since the hardening of the body occurs in contact with +15 to -15 degrees.
Canadian technology gives a gain of meat at 500g / day. Taste characteristics of meat is not inferior to rustic pork.
Canadian technology is used for boars, sows and animals for fattening. At the completion of fattening pigs are cleaned, disinfected and slaughtered. In their place put the next livestock.
Deep litter price
As we have said, to perform the technology in question economically. Sawdust can be obtained free of charge at any woodworking enterprise. The only thing that will be needed is to deliver them to your farm. Straw, too, need to stock up well in advance. If this is not possible, then you can purchase a bale from 100 rubles, depending on the size.
Bacteria, depending on the manufacturer, cost from 150 rubles / 0.5 l. Enough of such a bubble to saturate 3 cubes of sawdust.
It’s still too early to say if the technology on the deep litter is good or bad. Time will tell, but you should not neglect this experience.
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Deep litter for pigs: the pros and cons
The technology of keeping animals by this method is very similar to the principle of the operation of a dry closet. That is, photosynthetic and lactic acid bacteria are placed in a clean and dry layer of sawdust, which are able to absorb the waste of your pets, and also extract the heat that is necessary for their normal existence.
To apply content technology on such a flooring, you will need to follow a number of rules.
For the maintenance of pigs do not need to build solid structures. Enough room made of metal frame and awning cover. It must have a good ventilation system. The soil needs a normally drained, you can not use concrete floors. In the pigsty should not be cracks, that is, drafts.
Control, so as not to freeze the water in the drinkers.
The food supply usually consists of a dry mix, but the fiber should be in it somewhere around 50%. This is important because animal feed with such a percentage of fiber enhances the fermentation that occurs in the large intestine of animals, and is responsible for the heat exchange process.
What is non-replaceable litter
The technology of keeping pigs on this kind of flooring consists in placing animals on a floor covering consisting of straw with different types of cereal crops, wood chips, sawdust and other organic materials in an obligatory combination with special biological preparations (contain coprophagous bacteria). It is these unique bacteria that have the ability to process urine and feces. Due to this, in the pigsty not only there will be no unpleasant smell, but also heat will be released - in the amount of up to 40 degrees.
When keeping animals on deep bedding, it is really possible to do without heating the room even with the arrival of winter. It is absolutely safe for the health of your pets.
The principle of its action lies in the origin of a constant organic reaction. Due to the active action of bacteria, the waste products of pigs provoke the beginning of the fermentation process.
The fermentation process takes place inside the deepest litter. Its surface will always be clean and dry.
To place a deep laying, the pigsty should be cleaned from debris, disinfected and whitewashed. The formation of the litter begins with the calculation of sawdust, straw. The thickness of the layer should be about 20 cm. A biological preparation with bacteria should be scattered on top.
The calculation requires a temperature of at least 5 - 10 degrees above zero. The flooring should be agitated as it is moistened and absorbed, add a new layer and re-disperse the biological product. It is best to achieve a floor thickness of 50 cm - 1 meter.
Completely change it will be required before the settlement in the pigsty new livestock.
How to keep a pig
It is time to talk about how to grow pigs on the enzyme flooring. They are divided into walking or grazing, and bezgulny or stall. Let us dwell on each in more detail.
Pasture maintenance technology is recommended for use by farmers in the summer. Animals will have to be formed into a herd, and individuals of the same age and sex will be selected.
This method can be successfully used in farms at any stage of cultivation. If the cultivation of pigs occurs in large farms, then free-range is automated.
Usually in this case, the diet of animals consists of dry feed as well.
When free-growing pigs are grown on a deep laying, which is customarily chosen in winter, the indoor air needs to be made dry. It should also be normally ventilated - the reproduction of pigs and the normal microclimate of the flooring directly depend on it. Ventilation is necessary so that the accumulated moisture does not cause the incidence of livestock.
Such technology will help to create a comfortable thermal regime in the pigsty. It is convenient to use a frame hangar covered with a tarpaulin. It is good that it can be reduced or increased if necessary. Thus, the use of deep litter will provide an opportunity to save money that could be spent by the farmer on the equipment of a good pigsty. The indisputable advantages of Chinese-made deep bedding for pigs include the following:
The indisputable advantages of Chinese-made deep bedding for pigs include the following:
In addition, the bunker for the automatic provision of pet feed set without problems - most often the feed mode set at 1 time in 7 days. At the same time you can save the amount of feed up to 300 grams per kilogram of growth.
Bedding for pigs: bio, fermentation, deep
Fermaved.ru »Animal Husbandry» Pigs »Species litter for pigs
Pig farming is one of the most profitable businesses. Successful breeding of animals is based on providing the most comfortable living conditions for piglets and adults. It is recommended to use natural litter for pigs in the pigsty. This option is considered the least expensive.
when using a bedding for pigs it is similar to the principle of work of a dry closet. Directly to the layer of sawdust or other biomaterial place special bacteria that break down the waste products of pigs, as a result of which the necessary amount of heat is released into the atmosphere.
The use of litter for pigs involves the implementation of a number of rules:
- the room must be well ventilated
- Concrete flooring is not allowed,
- need to eliminate the appearance of drafts,
- it is important to ensure normal soil drainage,
- The air temperature in the room should not fall below zero.
Fermentation bedding for pigs can not build a solid building. It can be made from the usual metal frame and covered with an awning. An important point in the application of the method is the diet of pigs. Feed must include at least 50% fiber. It is this percentage that increases fermentation, which in turn enhances heat transfer.
What is a litter material
Bio litter for pigs is a flooring of various types of natural material, such as:
- straw with all kinds of cereal plants,
To ensure the required effect, special preparations containing coprophages are placed in the dry layer of the biomaterial. These are special microorganisms that are able to process the waste products of animals. This method allows you to eliminate unpleasant odors from the room and heat the barn during the winter period without the use of additional electrical equipment.
deep litter pigs - the safest method of breeding pigs. The principle of its operation consists in a continuous chain of chemical reactions, as a result of which the fermentation process is activated. Non-replaceable litter always remains dry.
The pig litter is laid on a cleaned, disinfected floor. Initially, a layer of biomaterial is laid (approximately 20 cm). Above pour the drug coprophagous. Fermentation non-replaceable bedding is laid at a temperature range from 5 to 10 ° C. As the floor gets wet, new layers are added and the preparation is drained.
Features of use
The fermentation non-replaceable bedding can last for about 4 years, provided that the pigs are constantly in the shed. If the animals are not in the pigsty for 3 weeks, all the bacteria will die, because they will not have a power source.
After laying the layers, the bedding for pigs with bacteria in the pigsty starts working after 3 days.
Growing livestock requires a much larger layer of flooring than for poultry. In the pigsty layer thickness can range from 50 cm to one meter. One of the main advantages of the method of breeding pigs on an irremovable litter is its availability: you can buy drugs in any store, and their price is more than reasonable.
How to raise pigs presented method
Growing pigs using bionastil implies their permanent presence in the room, otherwise the bacteria will have nothing to eat and they will die.
Pigs on deep litter suggests several options:
Pasture cultivation is practiced mostly in summer. The herd is formed from same-sex individuals of the same age. In large farms, free range is automated. In addition to juicy green pastures in the diet of gilts should be dry feed, containing a large amount of fiber.
The stall method is used during the cold season. With this method of content in the room you need to install an air dryer. A ventilation system must be equipped in the shed so that over-humidification of the air does not cause an infection.
Deep bedding has a huge number of advantages:
- saving financial and energy costs on room hygiene,
- dissolution of waste products already in 24 hours,
- eliminating unpleasant odors, preventing the appearance of dirt and increasing air humidity,
- maximum approximation of conditions to the natural habitat,
- reducing emissions of ammonia vapors into the atmosphere and pollution of groundwater.
When to clean and where to put
When keeping on non-replaceable bedding in pig breeding, it is also necessary to take care of stable hygiene of the room. It is necessary to do the cleaning of waste materials in time. On average, the bacterial litter serves 4 years. The final stage of its use is very simple to determine by appearance.
At the end of the service life of the biomaterial poorly absorbs moisture and does not process feces, resulting in an unpleasant smell in the room. For 4 years the layer of compost in the pigsty reaches a meter height. This amount of waste material need to go somewhere. It is not surprising that many breeders ask about whether it can be used as a fertilizer for the garden.
In the manufacture of drugs using natural bacteria, so as a fertilizer, you can use all the compost. Even if someone is embarrassed by the presence of bacteria in the waste material, after 3 weeks they will still die, because they will have nothing to eat. Such compost is beautifully stored.
What say the inhabitants
Feedback from those who keep pets on irremovable flooring is mostly positive. Growing on a deep deck offers many advantages. For example, it is not at all necessary to spend a fortune on the equipment of a solid building, you can build a metal frame and cover it with an awning. The dimensions of this room can be freely adjusted.
It is necessary to change litter once every 4 years or when a new herd is settled. There is no need to constantly remove the waste material, it is enough to lay a small layer of biomaterial when wet. The litter is always warm and dry, which contributes to the immunity of gilts.
Due to the processing by bacteria of the total volume of feces and urine in the rooms there is no characteristic unpleasant smell.
Inside the litter, the high temperature regime is constantly maintained at around 40 ° C, so rodents and insect pests never start up in such rooms.
On such a litter you can keep not only adult animals, but also piglets. Breeders note that the price of preparations for the creation of fermentation litter is more than acceptable, which is good news.
The whole process is based on the natural reaction of biomaterials with bacteria, so the compost can be used as a fertilizer after the expiration date.
In addition, due to the presence of bacteria, fertilizer can be stored for much longer than normal manure.
Breeding pigs often requires huge costs, especially when it comes to creating a pigsty and its arrangement. Not so long ago, from the East, the technology of keeping pigs on a deep non-replaceable bedding came to us, which can significantly reduce costs and simplify the maintenance.
The essence of the method consists in laying a layer of shavings, sawdust, straw or hay mixed with special preparations containing coprophagous bacteria on the disinfected floor covering. Reacting with feces and urine, the bacteria in one day completely break them down, releasing heat into the atmosphere.
In the deepest layers, the temperature is maintained from 40 ° C.
The chemical process allows even in the winter to keep the pigs in the room without special heating. A warm litter can last for several years before it needs to be completely replaced.
The high temperature inside the fermentation bedding allows you to forget about the appearance of rodents and other pests that carry all sorts of diseases. The main thing is to keep animals in the room periodically, otherwise coprophages will die, and the litter will have to be replaced ahead of time.
Almost all breeders who have tested the drug, unanimously assert that there is nothing better than content on a deep litter. The video details how to lay a deep flooring.
Farm Helena Moroz g Ufa backfilling of deep litter for pigs
Bacteria for litter in the pigsty | Review Biolatic «Biolatic» №2
Bacteria for processing pig manure Pigs on sawdust sawdust litter
Agriculture is a waste-free production, in which everything can be used, but many breeders, not having enough information, worry about where to put the spent biomaterial. The answer to the question is very simple: compost can be used as a fertilizer, because coprophagous plants do not harm the environment.
When using the method of pigs, it is necessary to feed with concentrated feed with a high content of fiber to maintain the thermal effect of the reaction of waste with bacteria. The mass of advantages makes the method of content every day more and more popular.
pigs in hangars on a deep non-replaceable bedding
Peculiarities of keeping pigs in hangars on a deep non-replaceable bedding
With examples of pig farms in different countries, the most successful and cost-effective way is to keep pigs on non-replaceable bedding in hangars all year round.
The ancestor of this content technologist is the Japanese breeders.Today, this technology is used for growing pigs in many European countries, in Ukraine and in Russia.
The essence of the technology lies in the joint keeping of pigs in groups in hangars, on irremovable deep bedding, feeding with dry feed, watering in plenty and using natural ventilation for regulation of the microclimate in the pig house.